Lassen sich Eichbosonen gut vergleichen mit brennenden Wunderkerzen?Jede brennende Wunderkerze (ein sog. "Sternwerfer") stellt sich dar als sprühende Wolke kleiner Lichtsternchen, deren jedes
- deutlich weniger lang brennt als die Wunderkerze insgesant
- und zudem selbst wieder mit einer brennenden Wunderkerze vergleichbar ist.
Richard Feynmans Diagramme beschreiben — in ihrer Gesamtheit — u.A. auch eben diese Struktur und Lebendigkeit unserer Welt.
Da Eichbosonen den Leim darstellen, der die Fermionen des Standardmodells sich verklumpen lässt zu Materieteilchen nahezu beliebiger Größe und Komplexität, erkennt man, wie viel Lebendigkeit — um nicht zu sagen Leben — alleine schon jedem beliebigen Klumpen scheinbar toter Materie innewohnt.
In Atomkernen besteht dieser Leim aus Gluonen, in Molekülen aus den elektromagnetische Kraft darstellenden Bosonen.
Eine besonders interessante Aussage über Quarks und die wahre Struktur aller Nukleonen macht David Tong auf Seite What Is Quantum Field Theory and Why Is It Incomplete? Man liest dort:
Just like other living things, of course, we’re made of cells. And cells, in turn, are made of molecules and molecules are made of atoms. Dig even deeper and pretty soon you’ll find yourself at the level of electrons and quarks. These are the particles that have traditionally been considered to be the end of the line, the fundamental building blocks of matter.
(00:39) But today, we know that’s not really the case. Instead, physicists tell us that at the deepest level, everything is made up of mysterious entities, fluid-like substances that we call quantum fields. These invisible fields sometimes act like particles, sometimes like waves. They can interact with one another. They can even, some of them, flow right through us. The theory of quantum fields is arguably the most successful scientific theory of all time. In some cases, it makes predictions that agree with experiments to an astonishing 12 decimal places. On top of that, quantum field theory has also been shedding enormous light on certain questions in pure mathematics, especially in the study of four-dimensional shapes and even higher dimensional spaces. Yet, there’s also reason to believe that quantum field theory is missing something. It seems to be mathematically incomplete, leaving us with many unanswered questions.
The wonderful big step, one of the great unifying steps in, in the history of physics, is to understand that that same story holds for all other particles. That the things we call electrons and the things we call quarks are not themselves the fundamental objects. Instead, there is spread throughout the entire universe something called an electron field, exactly like the electric and magnetic fields. And the particles that we call electrons are little ripples of this electron field. And the same is true for any other particle you care to mention. There’s a quark field — in fact, there are six different quark fields throughout the universe. There are neutrino fields, there are fields for gluons and W bosons. And whenever we discover a new particle, the most recent being the Higgs boson, we know that associated to that is a field which underlies it, and the particles are just ripples of the field.
Physics is all about telling lies when you’re young and realizing that things are a bit more complicated as you grow older. One lie we tell is that there are three quarks inside each proton and each neutron. And it’s not true. The correct statement is that there are many hundreds of quarks and antiquarks and gluons inside a proton. And statement that there are really three quarks, the proper way of saying it is that at any given time, there are three more quarks than there are antiquarks. So there’s sort of an additional three. But it’s an extraordinarily complicated object, the proton. It, it’s nothing nice and clean. It contains these hundreds, possibly even thousands of different particles interacting in some very complicated way. You could think about these quark-antiquark pairs as being, as you say, virtual particles, things that just pop out of the vacuum and pop back in again inside the proton. Or another way of thinking about it is just the fields themselves are excited in some complicated fashion inside the proton or neutron thrashing around and that’s what’s giving them their mass.
Tatsache scheint zu sein: Alles aus Materie bzw. Energie Bestehende ist nach Struktur und Dynamik am ehesten vergleichbar mit Wellen im Ozean (bei welchem Wetter auch immer).
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